Lighting by Gregory

Glossary

Accent Lighting - This is a stylistic way of lighting a home or business by using light to draw attention to a particular object. Another term you may come across for this technique is “Directional Lighting.”

Adaptation - The human eye adjusts to a change in light level. “Adaptation” is a term used to describe how much an eye “adapts” to the change in light.

Address Light - This light fixture is usually composed of a backlight that illuminates street numbers. Affixed to the front of a house, or at the end of the driveway, and Address Light lets visitors find a house even in the dark.

Ambient Lighting - Also known as “general Lighting,” ambient lighting describes the overall, general light in a room.

Amperes - Also known as “amps,” an ampere is a measure of electrical current.

Application - Also called "lighting application," this refers to the particular use of the lamp. For example, a desk lamp is used for a desk and usually has a light focusing apparatus and a retail lighting lamp will usually be a broad, general light that provides maximum luminance.

Arc Lamp - Also known as a “discharge lamp,” an arc lamp is a light source containing an arc.

Art Deco - Art Deco is a style of art in which the purpose is to be modern, stylish, and purely decorative. While many art movements are inspired by philosophical ideas, Art Deco is meant for design purposes only. Originated in the early 20th century, the style became common in commercial use, especially for companies who wanted to convey a sense of modernity. Train stations across the country adopted Art Deco styles to give an impression of technological prowess and efficiency. The style was also very popular in architecture, which have a sense of both modernity and wealth with lavish ornamental aspects.

Balancing Kit - Used to keep ceiling fans from wobbling by using plastic clips and lead weights inside a packet-like envelope.

Ballast - An auxiliary piece of equipment required to start and properly control the flow of current to gas discharge light sources such as fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps.

Base or Socket - The socket is what you plug a fixture into; the base is what you put into the socket. There are many types of bases used in lamps, screw bases being the most common for incandescent and HID lamps, while bi-pin bases are common for linear fluorescent lamps.

Base Temperature (Maximum) - The maximum operating temperature permitted for the base in Celsius. Fixture manufacturers need to ensure that these conditions are satisfied in their fixture.

Bathroom Ceiling Fan - Bathroom ceiling fans can be used to clear out the hot and humid air that from hot water showers.

Bathroom Vanity Light - A light fixture that can be mounted over a bath or vanity mirror.

Bayonet - A style of bulb connects to the fixture base via a keyway rather than a thread.

Beacon - A short and compact outdoor lighting fixture that can be easily placed in yards, gardens, and paths that may be difficult or not aesthetically pleasant to install larger, more intrusive light.

Bi-Pin - A base with two metal pins, or “prongs,” for electrical contact. This is the most common type of base for fluorescent tubes 1-4 feet in length.

Black Light - A light source that emits mostly near UV (320 to 400 nm) and very little visible light.

Blade Span - Length of distance between the blade ends on a ceiling fan.

Blades - are what create airflow. They are flat wood or metal panels (sometimes called “paddles”) that are kept at an angle that allows it to create airflow and push air out.

Bohemian - Bohemian lighting is a style that plays on the normally formal look of some fixtures such as chandeliers and floor lamps and revamps it with an easy, careless, free-flowing look. The 19th century France-inspired style is evident in many vine-like fixtures where arms crisscross and overlap. The colors are often earth tones and dark metals with brighter colors splashed here and there.

Bollard - A short, thick post with a light at its top, used for grounds and outdoor walkway lighting.

Brightness - Brightness can refer to any of several technical terms used in lighting and is, therefore, ambiguous.

Bulb - The outer glass bulb containing the light source.

Bulb Material or Coating - Refers to the material that the bulb is made of. The material is usually either glass or quartz.

Candlepower Distribution Curve - A graphical presentation of the distribution of light intensity of a light source, usually a reflector lamp or luminaire.

Canopy - A decorative cover for that encloses the mounting bracket.

Casual - Casual lighting is a very egalitarian style that tries not to draw too much attention. Many lighting fixtures that are considered “casual” are not necessarily plain, but simply tend to blend in with its surroundings. Devoid of glamorous decoration, eccentric design, or extreme time-period resemblances, a casual lighting fixture is simply simplicity.

Ceiling Cloud - Ceiling clouds are indiscrete overhead lights that blend into their surroundings.

CFM - or Cubic Feet per Minute, is the unit of measuring air flow from a ceiling fan. The higher the CFM, the more air the fan is moving.

Chandelier - A branched, decorative lighting fixture that holds a number of bulbs or candles and is suspended from a ceiling. Chandeliers come in an enormous selection of styles and are often a centerpiece of the room. This popular fixture is available for a number of settings other than the traditional dining room or living room, including bathrooms, outdoor patios, and more.

Chromaticity - A measure used to identify the color of a light source.

Classic - Classic style usually denotes old-fashioned elegance. Compared to more contemporary looks, the classic look is known for its ornate decorative qualities and “timeless” aura – which usually means it looks old but still attractive. Classic lighting is almost never just a lamp and people are often drawn to classic lighting fixtures for their ability to add a sense of prestige and “class” to their space. Some of the most popular lighting fixtures with a classic look include chandeliers, floor lamps, torchieres, and wall mounts.

Collar Cover - A decorative cover which hides the mounting hardware connecting the fan's downrod to the motor house.

Color Rendering Index (CRI) - Is an international system used to rate a lamp's ability to render object colors. The higher the CRI (based upon a 0-100 scale) the richer colors appear. CRI ratings of various lamps may be compared, but a numerical comparison is only valid if the lamps are close in color temperature. CRI differences among lamps are not usually significant (visible to the eye) unless the difference is more than 3-5 points.

Color Rendering Indicator - Draws attention to the fact that this is a lamp with high color rendering, which helps objects and persons illuminated to appear more true to life.

Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) - The general term applied to fluorescent lamps that are single-ended and that have smaller diameter tubes that are bent to form a compact shape. Some CFLs have integral ballasts and medium or candelabra screw bases for easy replacement of incandescent lamps.

Contemporary - Fixtures in this category have clean geometric outlines. The inspiration for these fixtures is drawn from manufacturing/architecture and organic forms. This category has transitioned into some darker finishes and softer shapes, often referred as soft contemporary.

Convertible Pendant - A convertible pendant is a dual function light fixture. It can be used as a hanging pendant with a chain or rod, and can also be mounted as a semi flush mount to the ceiling surface.

Cost of Light - Refers to the cost of operating and maintaining a lighting system on an ongoing basis. The 88-8-4 rule states that (typically) 88% is the cost of electricity, 8% is labor and only 4% is the cost of lamps.

Country - Country style lighting has a look that harkens back to the simple days of family farms and one horse towns. The look is an art all its own as it combines a complex rustic nostalgia with a simple, honest design. Country style fixtures look great outdoors and indoors with an overall rustic design scheme. They can also add a fun contrast to more contemporary dйcors.

Crystal - Extravagance can be a synonym for the Crystal design. Chandeliers and lamp fixtures adorned with several crystal-like objects that are meant to look luxurious. Crystal chandeliers also refract light gracefully and can add a glimmering quality to any space.

Damp Location - Describes fans that are designed for extremely wet and humid conditions.

Daylight Harvesting - Lighting design for building interiors that makes use of daylight as a way of reducing energy consumption.

Daylight Lamp - A lamp that resembles the color of daylight.

Deck Light - Light fixtures that are mounted on deck surfaces and used to illuminate hand rails, steps, as well as to create an overall ambience in your exterior living space. Deck lights are available in a number of different fixtures including sconces, torches, and more.

Desk Lamp - A fixture placed on desks for work or study. Available in a wide array of styles, they tend to be adjustable and make for excellent task lighting fixtures. The light source should be set about 15" above work area.

Dimmable - A lamp which has the ability to vary its luminance.

Dimmer - (aka Dimming Control) A device used to lower the luminance of a light source, usually by reducing the wattage it is being operated at. Despite being adaptable to personal needs, dimming controls are excellent for energy conservation.

Directional Light - A fixture commonly used for mood lighting. Directional lights provide a decorative accent that focuses attention on a particular area. Directional lights are also known as exhibit, display or spot lights and can be used in museum and retail settings, as well as the home.

Display Light - Display lights have a focused direction that is used to highlight or accent a specific element of the room. A wall mounted display light, for example, might be positioned over a painting to emphasize its impact in the dйcor.

Downlight - A light fixture that concentrates light in a downward direction. Most often this refers to recessed lighting, though many ceiling fixtures now have more concentrated beams of light.

Downrod - The metal pipe that extends from the ceiling bracket to the top of the fan. Most fans come supplied with a downrod that's 3-5 inches long – about The average height necessary in most homes. However, extension downrods are always available for high ceilings.

Efficacy - A measurement of how effective the light source is in converting electrical energy to lumens of visible light.

Efficiency - The efficiency of a light source determines how efficient its electrical use is compared to the amount of light it produces. For example, a 100 watt incandescent lamp converts 7% of the electrical energy into light; discharge lamps convert 25% to 40% into light.

Energy Policy Act (EPACT) - Comprehensive energy legislation passed by the U. S. Congress in 1992. The lighting portion includes lamp labeling and minimum energy efficacy (lumens/watt) requirements for many commonly used incandescent and fluorescent lamp types.

Extension Rod - An accessory for pendants and chandeliers to add length.

Eye Sensitivity - A curve depicting the sensitivity of the human eye as a function of wavelength (or color).

Fitter - The part of a light kit that connects its light sockets to the fan.

Fixture Requirements - Describes fixture requirements for HID lamps. O = Open or Enclosed Fixtures E = Enclosed Fixtures Only S = Lamps operated in a vertical position

Flicker - The periodic variation in light level caused by AC operation that can lead to strobe effects.

Flood - Used to refer to the beam pattern of a reflector lamp, which disperses the light over a wide beam angle, typically 20 degrees or more.

Floodlight - A fixture that can powerfully illuminate an area for outdoor security or utility functions. The light is projected in a broad beam. These lights often blend into the landscape of a home.

Floor Lamp - A standing lamp used for general lighting. This fixture can have both decorative and utilitarian functions in any space.

Fluorescence - A physical phenomenon whereby an atom of a material absorbs a photon of light an immediately emits a photon of longer wavelength. If there is a significant delay the phenomenon is called phosphorescence rather than fluorescence. It is interesting that "phosphors" used in lamps exhibit "fluorescence," not "phosphorescence."

Fluorescent Lamp - A high efficiency lamp utilizing an electric discharge through low pressure mercury vapor to produce ultraviolet (UV) energy. The UV excites phosphor materials applied as a thin layer on the inside of a glass tube which makes up the structure of the lamp. The phosphors transform the UV to visible light.

Flush Mount - A ceiling light fixture installed into the ceiling or wall. This fixture is ideal for low ceilings and narrow hallways.

Footcandle (fc) - A unit of illuminance or light falling onto a surface.

Frequency (Nominal Operations) - The stated operating frequency in Hz of a discharge lamp.

General Lighting - See Ambient Lighting

Glare - Visual discomfort caused by excessive brightness is called discomfort glare.

Halogen Lamp - A halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp with a filament that is surrounded by halogen gases, such as iodine or bromine.

Hanging Lantern - This fixture is mounted from a ceiling and maintains a chain or wire from which the lantern hangs. These fixtures are popular for patios, outdoor decks, and other exterior settings.

Heating Ceiling Fan - A ceiling fan with a mechanism that can reverse the motor so that the warm air that rises to the ceiling from the heater can be pushed down.

High-Bay Lighting - Lighting designed for industrial locations with a ceiling height of 25 feet and above.

Hub/Switch Housing - The part of the fan where the switches are located, usually below the motor housing.

Hugger - A fan style where the motor mounts directly to the ceiling. This style is handy for low ceilings.

Ignitor - An electronic device providing a high voltage pulse to initiate an electrical discharge.

Illuminance - The "density" of light incident on a surface; i.e. the light level on a surface.

Illuminance Meter - A device that measures the illuminance at a location

Incandescent Lamp - A light source that generates light utilizing a thin filament wire (usually of tungsten) heated to white heat by an electric current passing through it.

Indirect Lighting - The method of lighting a space by directing the light from luminaires upwards towards the ceiling. The light scattered off the ceiling produces a soft, diffuse illumination for the entire area.

Industrial Ceiling Fan - A ceiling fan used for large spaces such as garages, warehouses, auditoriums, gymnasiums, and more.

Infrared Radiation - Electromagnetic energy radiated in the wavelength range of about 770 to 1,000,000 nanometers. Energy in this range cannot be seen by the human eye, but can be sensed as heat by the skin.

In-Ground Light - A compact outdoor lighting fixture with the wiring capability to be installed into the ground, allowing for convenient light that doesn’t obstruct the visual scheme of the outdoor landscape. These lights are ideal for gardens and yards as they provide light without taking away from the natural beauty of the landscape.

Iron & Rustic - Iron & Rustic designs are known by their tin-like, time-worn look but add a homey elegance at the same time. Although they can look tough, these designs are also very comforting as they can add a feeling of simplicity to any dйcor.

Junction Box/Outlet Box - The enclosure that protects wires and offers support to surface fixtures.

Kilowatt (kW) - The measure of electrical power equal to 1000 watts.

Kilowatt Hour (kWh) - The standard measure of electrical energy and the typical billing unit used by electrical utilities for electricity use. A 100-watt lamp operated for 10 hours consumes 1000 watt-hours (100 x 10) or one kilowatt-hour.

Kitchen Island Pendant / Billiard Light - A hanging fixture typically placed above a kitchen island or pool table, providing the perfect amount of light for the intended activity.

Lamp - Any of various devices furnishing artificial light powered by electricity or gas

Landscape Lighting - Landscape lighting provides illumination for exterior settings and can be used as accent lighting, security lighting, or both.

Lens - A transparent or semi-transparent element which controls the distribution of light by redirecting individual rays. Luminaires often have lenses in addition to reflectors.

Light - Radiant energy that can be sensed or seen by the human eye. Visible light is measured in lumens.

Light Center Length (L.C.L.) - The distance between the center of the filament, or arc tube, and a reference plane - usually the bottom of the lamp base.

Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Small, strong, and energy efficient lights that produce illumination by converting electronic currents. LED bulbs are highly popular for battery-powered items and last 10 times longer than compact fluorescents and 133 times longer than regular incandescent lights.

Light Pollution - Light that is directed to areas where it is not needed, and thereby interferes with some visual act. Light pollution directed or reflected into the sky creates a "dome" of wasted light and makes it difficult to see stars above cities.

Light Trespass (Spill Light) - Light that is not aimed properly or shielded effectively can spill out at into areas that don't want it: it can be directed towards drivers, pedestrians or neighbors. It is distracting and annoying and can sometimes be disabling.

Lighted Pot Rack - This fixture incorporates a traditional, ceiling mounted, hanging pot rack and lighting elements. The combination allows additional accent lighting in a kitchen space highlights your pots and pans for display and can often illuminate a counter surface below the pot rack.

Lighting Kit - The lighting fixture attached to the ceiling fan.

Lumens - A measure of the luminous flux or quantity of light emitted by a source. For example, a dinner candle provides about 12 lumens. A 60-watt Soft White incandescent lamp provides about 840 lumens.

Luminance - A measure of "surface brightness" when an observer is looking in the direction of the surface. It is measured in candelas per square meter (or per square foot) and was formerly referred to as "photometric brightness."

Lux (lx) - A unit of illuminance or light falling onto a surface. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter.

Maximum Overall Length (M.O.L.) - The end-to-end measurement of a lamp, expressed in inches or millimeters.

Mercury Lamp - A high-intensity discharge light source operating at a relatively high pressure (about 1 atmosphere) and temperature in which most of the light is produced by radiation from excited mercury vapor. Phosphor coatings on some lamp types add additional light and improve color rendering.

Mini Pendant - Typically, a fixture consisting of a single pole or chain extending from the ceiling canopy.

Mirror Lighting - A type of accent light that is typically a single strip with multiple lamps. Use a mirror light for grooming purposes as well as to reflect light throughout the room.

Monochromatic Light - Light with only one wavelength (i.e. color) present.

Motor Housing - The decorative body of the fan which encloses the motor.

Mounting Height - Distance from the bottom of the fixture to either the floor or work plane, depending on usage.

Multi-Mount - A mounting fixture used on a sloped ceiling that allows the ceiling fan to hang without downrods.

Murano - Murano glass design was originated from the Venetian island of Murano, Italy. In 1291, the island became a center for glassmaking when the Venetian Republic moved their glassmaking industry there from Venice out of fear of fire to the city’s mostly wooden buildings. Today, the style is characterized by the Murano tradition which is characterized by heating a silicate glass to a liquefied state using intense heat and mixing it with chemicals that change the color and texture. Lighting fixtures made with Murano glass tend to be highly decorative and stylistically unique.

Nanometer - A unit of wavelength equal to one billionth of a meter

Neoclassical - Neoclassicism is a term used to describe a popular movement in art during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe. The style was a sort of homage to the art styles of Ancient Greece and Rome, which involved heavily idealized depictions of people and places. In architecture and home dйcor, the style retains elements of grandiosity and finely detailed decorative features.

Outdoor Ceiling Fan - An outdoor ceiling fan built to withstand wet or damp locations and can be mounted on porches and decks.

Paddle Ceiling Fan - A ceiling fan with wide blades useful for decorative purposes and stronger air flow.

Path Lighting - Path lights are used to line outside walkways, stairs, and driveways. Path lights are excellent for safety and aesthetic purposes.

Pendant - Sometimes called a drop or suspender is a lone light fixture that hangs from the ceiling usually suspended by a cord, chain, or metal rod. Pendant lights are often used in multiples, hung in a straight line over kitchen countertops and dinette sets or sometimes in bathrooms.

Phosphor - An inorganic chemical compound processed into a powder and deposited on the inner glass surface of fluorescent tubes and some mercury and metal-halide lamp bulbs. Phosphors are designed to absorb short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and to transform and emit it as visible light (See FLOURESCENCE).

Photopic - Vision for which the cones in the eye are responsible; typically at high brightness and in the foveal or central

Portable Fan - Portable fans come in various sizes and are useful for numerous purposes.

Post Lantern - An outdoor light fixture, post lanterns are comprised of a lantern fixture and a support post that is usually driven into the ground.

Quartz - A name for fused silica or melted sand from which many high-temperature containers are fashioned in the lighting industry. Quartz looks like glass but can withstand the high temperatures needed to contain high intensity arc discharges.

Recessed Lighting - (aka Downlight Lighting) Installed above the ceiling, recessed lighting allows for an attractive, unobtrusive lighting in any part of the home as well as exterior settings. Because of their inconspicuous nature, recessed downlights can blend into almost any dйcor and provide a wide range of attractive lighting effects.

Remote Control - A device which allows you to operate a ceiling fan from a distance.

Reverse Switch - Changes electrical current to change blade rotation.

Rock Light / Rock Spotlight - An outdoor lighting fixture with a spotlight enclosed in a rock-like case. The rock light is a popular way to maintain a natural setting in a garden or yard while at the same time providing quality light.

Rotor - The turning part of the ceiling fan motor.

Safety Cable - Secures installation of ceiling fans over 35 lbs.

Scotopic - Vision where the rods of the retina are exclusively responsible for seeing, typically like the light levels in the countryside on a moonless, starlit night.

Sealed Bearings - Are permanently lubricated motor bearings that ensure smooth-running ceiling fan blades.

Semi Flush - A partially-suspended light fixture for higher ceilings.

Sloped Ceiling Kit - A kit for hanging ceiling fans from slanted ceilings.

Spanish - Spanish style lighting is inspired by the Spanish colonial look of Mexico and the Southwestern United States. In architecture, this look is famous for smooth stucco walls and clay tiles and can be seen in abundance in southern California and San Francisco. In lighting, however, many fixtures with a Spanish style contain a rustic elegance with earth tone colors and a somewhat ornately disheveled decorative quality.

Spot Light - A spot light focuses a directional beam on a particular object, popular for outdoor gardens and yards as well as business exteriors.

Stator - The non-moving part of the ceiling fan's motor.

Step Light - A fixture that can be installed into the step or stairwell providing unobtrusive light. Step lights are excellent for increasing safety and enhancing aesthetics.

Strip Light - Sometimes referred to as a vanity strip, a strip light is most often used mounted in bathrooms above mirrors. Offering functional lighting, they are comprised of a series of globe-style bulbs that align in a row on a strip base.

Swing Arm Lamp - A functional floor or wall lamp with a horizontal double-arm. The light source can be moved from side to side for reading or project lighting. These lamps are an excellent choice for bedside lighting.

Task Lamp - A fixture most often used to illuminate an area where one performs an activity in which seeing clearly is necessary.

Task Lighting - Supplemental lighting provided to assist in performing a localized task, e.g. a table lamp for reading or an inspection lamp for fabric inspection.

Tiffany - Tiffany style is inspired by the work of the American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933), who was well known for his elaborate stained glass art. During his career, Louis Comfort Tiffany built several factories and, aside from stained glass art, specialized in the production of lamps, enamels, and decorative glass objects, all of which incorporated his unique style that has since become so famous worldwide.

Torchiere - A standing floor lamp that directs light upward.

Traditional - Traditional design tends to forego modern sleekness and simplicity and instead relies on more time-tested elegance that serve to both serve the pragmatic function as well as a decorative function.

Transitional - Transitional design blurs the line between traditional and contemporary. The style essentially draws on both schools to come up with something noncommittal yet still fashionable. The purpose of transitional design is to accommodate almost any interior while not being bland or boring.

Troffer - A long, recessed lighting unit, usually installed in an opening in the ceiling.

Tropical - Tropical design can be exotically elegant or just plain fun. Using natural design elements like wood and foliage, tropical lighting fixtures can take the shape of a palm tree or just use these elements in the form of an enchanting chandelier.

UL and CUL - Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., like Electrical Testing Laboratory (ETL), is an independent, not-for-profit product safety testing and certification organization.

Under Cabinet / Under Shelf Fixtures - Provides both task and accent lighting. Under kitchen cabinets they light a countertop. In a display cabinet they show off prized possessions. They're used in a workshop or anywhere you need lighting right at hand. They include slim, energy-efficient fluorescents, miniature track lighting, and strips of low-voltage mini-lights.

Underwater Light - A lighting fixture that is compatible to be installed into pools, garden ponds, and other exteriors that may be submerged in water.

Uplighting - Uplighting visually expands a room by providing ambient light. Use them as a complement to recessed down lighting, and place them where they appear aesthetically balanced in the room.

Valance Lighting - Lighting from light sources on a wall typically above eye level, shielded by horizontal panels. The light may be upward or downward directed.

Volt - A measure of "electrical pressure" between two points. The higher the voltage, the more current will be pushed through a resistor connected across the points. The volt specification of an incandescent lamp is the electrical "pressure" required to drive it at its designed point. The "voltage" of a ballast (e.g. 277 V) refers to the line voltage it must be connected to.

Voltage - The electrical force or potential expressed in volts

Wall Control - A ceiling fan control installed in your wall, usually in combination with a light switch.

Wall Lantern - Often used to light the exterior of a home or business, wall lanterns hold a traditional lantern shape and are mounted, usually with a bracket plate, to a wall surface.

Wall Lighting - The illumination of vertical surfaces can impact that perception of a space more than any other type of lighting. Light reflecting off walls creates a bright, spacious feel and adds visual interest. Dramatic effects can be achieved with light to illuminate vertical surfaces and highlight objects. Through proper lighting selection and placement a room can appear more spacious and interesting.

  • Grazing: For dramatic effect on textured surfaces such as stucco, stone or brick, place fixtures 6-12 inches away from the wall. Grazing is not recommended on smooth surfaces as surface imperfections will be exaggerated.
  • Light Scallops: Light scallop is an effect created when the fixture is placed closer to the wall resulting in a more concentrated and tighter scallop. Scallop light effects are often a part of the lighting plan for added drama, however they can be inadvertently created is fixture placement is not properly calculated.
  • Wall Washing: For a gentle and even illumination of a vertical space, place fixtures the same distance apart as they are from the wall. Wall washing is best suited for smooth surfaces.


Wall Sconce - A lighting fixture that can be mounted on a wall. They are usually unobtrusive fixtures and are ideal for saving space and keeping halls clear

Wallchiere - A wall mounted light fixture that diffuse or directs light upwards.

Watt - A unit of electrical power. Lamps are rated in watts to indicate the rate at which they consume energy